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I got this from an Australian health website, authored by Mary Waldie. She says she compiled her info from the 1995 edition of The Physicians Handbook of Clinical Nutrition. What do you guys think? I think the Biochemical Determinants part is the most interesting.

ACNE

Acne vulgaris appears at puberty and affects almost 80% of teenagers and in many cases heralds the onset of puberty; it often precedes menarche. Acne maybe provoked by the androgenic sex hormones which increase the secretion of the sebaceous gland. The sebum so produced may be broken down to fatty acids which may provoke, in conjunction with bacteria present, an inflammatory response in the sebaceous gland.

Acne vulgaris attacks regions containing large sebaceous glands, i.e., the face, back and the upper anterior chest. The lesion consists of closed (white) or open (black) comedones (black-heads), papules, pustules, nodules, and abscesses. The abscesses may form channels under the skin, which then form fistulas to discharge pus on the surface.

Acne form lesions may be provoked by drugs, especially corticosteroids, chlorinated hydrocarbons (termed chloracne), DDT, tars, soaps, antibiotics or any irritant of the sebaceous gland.

Treatment modalities range from squeezing pustules, antibiotics, vitamin A creams and dietary change. Best results are achieved if the host tissues are supported or strengthened against bacterial or fungal infection as well as improving healing rate and reducing inflammation. The mucopolysaccharide aloe-mucin in conjunction with vitamin A has shown to be remarkably useful in this regard.


BIOCHEMICAL DETERMINANTS

The skin of acne patients shows greater activity of 5 alpha reductase, an enzyme which converts testosterone to a more potent androgen - dihydrotestosterone. Cytochrome P450, a detoxifying enzyme can accelerate the destruction of this active androgen. Cytochrome P450 can be induced by high protein diets and vitamin C supplementation.

Male acne patients have significantly decreased levels of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase which is normalised with Vitamin E and Selenium. This results in decreased free radical peroxidation.

50% of acne patients have increased circulating endotoxins, which increases the Cu/Zn ratio and thus increases complement and fibrin formation.

Vitamin B6 deficiency increases uptake and sensitivity to testosterone.

Thyroid therapy also can help.

Despite adequate vitamin A intake, acne patients have significantly lower serum Vitamin A levels than controls. They also have depressed concentrations of vitamin A in unaffected epidermis. Isotretinion - increases retinol in epidermis but not blood retinol levels.

Retoninic acid is a natural metabolite of vitamin A that cannot be converted to retinol. It would appear that acne patients have a defect in vitamin A metabolism.

Patients with acne have a low concentration of linolenic acid in the sebum and EFA deficiency in the pilosebaceous epithelium which might account for the characteristic follicular hyperkeratosis of Acne. However, prolonged administration of EFA and Vitamin B5 is required to overcome this hyperkeratosis.

NUTRITIONAL TREATMENT

Avoid all refined sugars, saturated fats and processed foods.

Improve digestion by taking digestive enzymes (DEF and Hydrozyme) or apple cider vinegar with meals.

Increase intake of zinc and vitamin A rich foods.

Check for food sensitivity in any individual in whom acne appears in their late twenties. Salicylate-rich food is usually the culprit.

Avoid all antacids and supplement with Hydrozyme.

Garlic supplementation may also help reduce infection.

Apply MPS healing emollient to enhance healing and the normalisation of the skins surface.

Supplement with high dose pantothenic acid (2.5g). It decreases sebum production. Deficiency of pantothenic acid results in altered metabolism of fatty acids. Pantothenic acid is a cofactor in the activity of Co enzyme A which is involved in many reactions. eg. sex hormone production, fatty acid oxidation etc. The fatty acid metabolism due to a lack of B5 results in a build up of fat droplets in the sebaceous glands.

Avoid commercial soft drinks with brominated vegetable oils, reduce milk consumption (decrease of hormone content) and Trans fatty acids.

Menstrual acne responds to Vitamin B6 and Folic Acid.

Increase Chromium intake (HGF) - which improves insulin effectiveness in converting linoleic acid to prostaglandin.

Zinc supplementation is as effective as tetracycline.

Acne Rosacea responds to Vitamin B2 supplementation resulting in chemical presentation of hyperkeratinization and increase sebum secretion.





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