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Health is determined by the nutrients you happen to not get.

SUPPLEMENT HOW MUCH WHY About safety, see [Comments]. About where & what to buy, see [Nuts, Bolts].
Vitamin E
Three very large studies found 40% heart disease risk reduction with supplements.

Anti-Alzheimer's; helps diabetes and dialysis problems.
200 - 400 natural or 800 IU synthetic. Natural or "mixed" may be best.
Here's a summary of the excellent 1999 book The Vitamin E factor
Antioxidant; protects blood fats; raises good (HDL) & lowers bad (LDL) cholesterol. Prevents blood sticking, clots and artery damage. Like vitamin C, keeps blood and cell fats non-toxic.
Very important. Take during "fattiest" meal. Natural (d) type doubly effective --also consider: mixed "tocopherols" and possibly "mixed tocotrienols". Consider starting with lower dose. IF on Coumadin (warfarin), aspirin and/or high fish oil, use lowest dose: while preventing clotting, you could promote excessive bleeding.

As with the heart-healthy omega-3 oils, E's cardio benefits increase with time. The evidence for prevention is stronger than for E as a cure.

Vitamin C --not Ester-C
238 scientific ref's in Am J Cl Nutr; June '99; here's the abstract.

Beneficial roles of very high doses in disease are probable but not well established. 1/2 - 4 grams
At or above lower dose in health, higher in illness.
If prone to oxalate type kidney stones, stay below 1 g, drink sufficient water, consider vitamin B6, low salt, low protein and high calcium foods.
Antioxidant. Works with and recycles vitamin E; prevents artery infection; strengthens blood vessels; raises good & lowers Lp(a) cholesterol; speeds up bowel, removing excess cholesterol. Improves general health & effects of diabetes. See point 2 in [31 Comments] and, regarding heart disease, the Linus Pauling Institute.
Anti-viral. At 4 /g, best health bargain around. 99.9% of animals make their own in "mega" amounts as do all plants. We (monkeys and guinea pigs) do not. Very high doses are remarkably safe: "..take as much as you like" [from the L. Pauling Institute's Top Ten, May 2000]. Very important. Nature's nitroglycerin, like arginine & vitamin E.

The B's --No reported toxicity in doses mentioned.

(B2), B6, B12 & folic acid will lower artery toxic homocysteine in anyone.
Take as a multi and not individually unless there is a special reason.
B1 20-100 mg
B2 20-100 mg
B3 100-600 mg
B6 25-100 mg
B12 100 mcg+
Folic acid 400 - 800 mcg

Pantothenic acid (B5) 20-200 mg
They help digest fats and sugars and will lower homocysteine (-best in higher than RDA amounts).
Very high dose niacin (a form of B3) is by far the best & cheapest cholesterol lowering "drug", raising good, lowering bad & ultra bad Lp(a) cholesterol & triglycerides -take with a daily multi. B3 is also good for liver and brain.
The B's are needed for 100's of processes in the body. Ultra high doses of some have anti-Alzheimer's, schizophrenia & depression links.

The higher doses mentioned resemble Pauling's. Very important. Very high B6 may help carpal tunnel problems.

Calcium (see minerals below) + Vitamin D. Don't overdo D. Calcium 1.5 gr. + Vitamin D 4- 800 IU (as per BMJ; Nov. 28 98) These two {1.2g Ca + 800IU D} prevent bone loss and fracture at age 84! (here's your reference). Calcium is heart healthy. Good sources are: bone, boiled egg shells, oyster shell, dolomite, milk & soy, and green leaf or cabbage type veggie (which also have the bone-building vitamin K).
Magnesium & potassium** (see minerals, below) 1/2 - 1 gr. Crucial for heart function; it, and potassium** regulate heartbeat. Mg is needed for 300 important reactions, including lowering toxic homocysteine. 90% of Mg is removed from refined grains and rice! Most Americans don't get the RDA of about 0.4 gr. Very important and few side effects.
Selenium (see minerals, below) 200 mcg (max. 800 mcg) Antioxidant, works with vitamins E and C. A lack causes heart disease & cancer which are, in part, selenium deficiency diseases. Very important.
CoQ10 (CoenzymeQ10, or ubiquinone) 60 to 300 mg Essential for heart & blood pressure; larger dose for serious heart trouble or cancer; vital when taking a "statin" drug. Body makes less when older (using most B vitamins and magnesium). Safe but expensive ($1/100mg). Doubly absorbed when chewed in oily food.
Vitamin F -with the F from Fat ...
An old term that shouldn't be lost.
a-Linolenic; omega-3 (w-3 or n-3) type oil

Linoleic; omega-6 (w-6 or n-6) type oil
Omega-3: 1 to 2 tea spoons flax/lin or fish, or 2 table spoons canola oil [Europe: like colza, rape, raap or kool zaad], or soy -only if you can't find canola.

Most people get enough or too much n-6.
True vitamins: needed for heart-health. The only 2 fats (oils) the body can not make.
Omega-3 type a-linolenic is scarce in the Western food supply but is key to heart, general and mental health. Fish oil works like a-linolenic, see: [Good Food] and [31 Comments] -and lowers triglycerides.

Omega-6 type linoleic (corn, sun, saff, soy, cotton) is rarely lacking and is often excessive in relation to n-3 linolenic. Possibly the most common "vitamin overdose" in Western diets at 2x the ISSFAL maxium for most people. The cancer-link keeps on popping up in the high omega-6 research.

*Minerals are complicated because there are so many and it is possible to overdose. Research is limited and one's intake depends on the degree of food processing and amount in the soil. Plants make vitamins but must mine their minerals. Here's some info about their roles -not necessarily as supplements- in health and disease. MINERAL COMMON INTAKE OPTIMUM RANGE HELPS SOURCE
Selenium (see above)
Here's a US Nat. Inst. of Health link.

No deaths from foods or supplements are reported. Toxicity likely at ~2500 mcg/d.
NE, SE and NW N-Am. & Northern Europe, New Zealand, parts of china: 50 mcg/day & often insufficient.
Southern Europe and a central N-S band in N-Am. seem to have adequate amounts in the soil. Large local differences.
200-800 mcg.

The higher dose is above what is generally accepted as safe but it may well slash the 25% US cancer death rate by about one quarter [my guess]. Cancer, heart disease, heart muscle, muscle, cataracts, blood pressure, aging

Overdose risk -as per the link in the left column- should be weighed against potentially 6 fewer N. Americans dying from cancers for each 100 people taking Se supplements

Some whole grains, fish, Brazil nuts, kidney and, more reliably, supplements:
Twinlab's Daily One Cap and's Once daily Caps (almost uniquely) contain an excellent 200 mcg, see [Nuts, Bolts].

Silicon 20 - 50 mg (not well absorbed) 5 - 10 mg or higher Bones, joints, heart, skin, poor (weak) collagen Unrefined plants and greens, whole grain, horsetail plant. Dietary fiber (oats, barley, and rice) and wine.
Chromium 30 mcg (US) often insufficient 200-400 mcg
with selenium Diabetes; helps insulin, cholesterol, acne, sugar use Liver, grains, root veggies, green pepper.
Vanadium 10 - 60 mg often insufficient 100 mcg+ Diabetes; higher doses replace insulin Shell fish, parsley, some processed foods, grains, beans.
Boron 1.5 mg often insufficient 3 - 9 mg Bone health, diabetes, infection, arthritis Water, fruits, veggies.
Manganese 2.5 - 4 mg often insufficient 5-15 mg Bone, cartilage, heart, epilepsy, diabetes, cataracts Unrefined vegetarian; not in animal products.

0.7 -1.5 mg often insufficient

1-2 mg (1/10th of your zinc intake)
Like selenium & iron, don't overdose on copper
Heart, arthritis, hair color, artery bursts (aneurysm, stroke), bad collagen, high LDL, poor clotting, Parkinson's Nuts, grains, bracelets, supplements. Soft or acidic water: excessive amounts from copper pipes.

Zinc --Part of 200 enzymes, the nutritional screw drivers, hammers and plyers of our body -with protein and fancy oils being the nuts, bolts and batteries and with glucose and fats the fuel. 7 - 14 mg often insufficient 10 - 30 mg Arthritis, skin, infection, bad collagen, vision, prostate, diabetes, etc. Shell fish, nuts, grains, beans, potatoes, fish and meat.
Molybdenum 75-250 mcg or less ? 75-250 mcg Organs, enzymes, cancer Whole grains, beans, liver.
Potassium** U.S. (AIM; 2000-9-11): young adults: 3.4 g/d; high fruit + veggies: 8 - 11 g/d; urban whites: 2.4 g/d; often elderly or Blacks: ~1 g/d. 20% of hospitalized patients have low potassium. varies; often insufficient --in relation to sodium i.e. kitchen salt; lost in processing. 2 - 5.6 gr (US RDA)**
Try to get it from your food

Heart, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, cell function, sweating, diuretics, irregular heart beat**, muscle, fatigue, nerves, etc. etc. Bananas, celery, fruits (prune, orange) and veggies (potato, broccoli, beets), meat, fish, salt substitutes.
Zero in: white flour, sugar & fats.

Sodium (salt) most often high or excessive 1/10th of potassium Cell function, always sufficient; raises blood pressure Processed and salted foods; source of added iodine.
Iron 16 mg (Sweden) often insufficient 10 - 15 mg
don't overdose Blood; premeno- pausal women only; some infants, teens & elderly Liver, nuts, grains & greens; vitamin C increases absorption
Magnesium (see above) Mg has it's own amazing site here. Here's the US N.I.H. and here's a Medline heart disease link. 300 mg (Sweden)
often insufficient; very important 500 - 1000 mg (at least half of calcium intake) Heart, heart failure, irregular heart beat, bone, PMS, cramps, fatigue, diabetes, stroke, diuretic use, etc. Whole grains, nuts, soy, greens, root veggies & supplements
Calcium (see above) 500 mg (Belgium)
often insufficient 1000 - 2000 mg (1-2g) Bone, heart, general, blood pressure Bone, greens, grains, nuts & milk. Not in meats.

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